THE QUIETNESS OF TRUE RELIGION.
"The elder to the well beloved Gaius.... He that does, good is of God; but he that does, evil has not seen God." --- 3 John 1, 11.
The mere analysis of this note must necessarily present a meagre outline. There is a brief expression of pleasure at the tidings of the sweet and gracious hospitality of Gaius which was brought by certain missionary brethren to Ephesus, coupled with the assurance of the truth and consistency of his whole walk. The haughty rejection of Apostolic letters of communion by Diotrephes is mentioned with a burst of indignation. A contrast to Diotrephes is found in Demetrius, with the threefold witness to a life so worthy of imitation. A brief greeting --- and we have done with the last written words of St. John which the Church possesses.
Let us first see whether, without passing over the bounds of historical probability, we can fill up this bare outline with some colouring of circumstance.
To two of the three individuals named in this Epistle we seem to have some clue.
The Gaius addressed is, of course, Caius in Latin, a very common prænomen, no doubt.
Three persons of the name appear in the New Testament --- unless we suppose St. John's Caius to be a fourth. But the generous and beautiful hospitality adverted to in this note is entirely of a piece with the character of him of whom St. Paul had written, "Gaius, mine host, and of the whole Church." We know further, from one of the most ancient and authentic documents of Christian literature, that the Church of Corinth (to which this Caius belonged) was, just at the period when St. John wrote, in a lamentable state of schismatic confusion. Diotrephes may, at such a period, have been aspiring to put forward his claim at Corinth; and may, in his ambitious proceedings, have rejected from communion the brethren whom St. John had sent to Caius. A yet more interesting reflection is suggested by a writing of considerable authority. The writer of the "Synopsis of Holy Scripture," which stands amongst the Works of Athanasius, says --- "the Gospel according to John was both dictated by John the Apostle and beloved when in exile at Patmos, and by him was published in Ephesus, through Caius the beloved and friend of the Apostles, of whom Paul also writing to the Romans[Pg 302] saith, Caius mine host, and of the whole Church." This would give a very marked significance to one touch in this Third Epistle of St. John. The phrase here "and we bear witness also, and you know that our witness is true" --- clearly points back to the closing attestation of the Gospel --- "and we know that his witness is true." He counts upon a quick recognition of a common memory.
Demetrius is, of course, a name redolent of the worship of Demeter the Earth-Mother, and of Ephesian surroundings. No reader of the New Testament needs to be reminded of the riot at Ephesus, which is told at such length in the history of St. Paul's voyages by St. Luke. The conjecture that the agitator of the turbulent guild of silversmiths who made silver shrines of Diana may have become the Demetrius, the object of St. John's lofty commendation, is by no means improbable. There is a peculiar fulness in the narrative of the Acts, and an amplitude and exactness in the reports of the speeches of Demetrius and of the town-clerk which betray both unusually detailed information, and a feeling on the part of the writer that the subject was one of much interest for many readers. The very words of Demetrius about Paul evince that uneasy sense of the powers of fascination possessed by the Apostle which is often[Pg 303] the first timid witness of reluctant conviction. The whole story would be of thrilling interest to those who, knowing well what Demetrius had become, were here told what he once had been. In a very ancient document (the so-called "Apostolic Constitutions") we read that "Demetrius was appointed Bishop of Philadelphia by me," i.e., by the Apostle John. To the Bishop of a city so often shaken by the earthquakes of that volcanic soil came the commendation --- "I know your works that you didst keep My word;" and the assuring promise that he should, when the victory was won, have the solidity and permanence of "a pillar" in a "temple" that no convulsion could shake down. The witness then, which stands on record for the Bishop of Philadelphia, is threefold; the threefold witness of the First Epistle on a reduced scale --- the witness of the world; the witness of the Truth itself, even of Jesus; the witness of the Church --- including John.
We may now advert to the contents and general style of this letter.
As to its contents.
It supplies us with a valuable test of Christian life, in[Pg 304] what may be called the Christian instinct of missionary affection, possessed in such full measure by Caius.
This, indeed, is an ingredient of Christian character. Do we admire and feel attracted by missionaries? They are knight-errants of the Faith; leaders of the "forlorn hope" of Christ's cause; bearers of the flag of the cross through the storms of battle. Do we wish to honour and to help them, and feel ennobled by doing so? He who has no almost enthusiastic regard for missionaries has not the spirit of primitive Christianity within his breast.
The Church is beset with different dangers from very different quarters. The second Epistle of St. John has its bold unmistakable warning of danger from the philosophical atmosphere which is not only round the Church, but necessarily finds its way within. Those who assume to be leaders of intellectual and even of spiritual progress sometimes lead away from Christ. The test of scientific truth is accordance with the proposition which embodies the last discovery; the test of religious truth is accordance with the proposition which embodies the first discovery, i.e., "the doctrine of Christ." Progress outside this is regress; it is desertion first of Christ, ultimately of God. As the second Epistle warns the Church of peril from speculative ambition, so the third Epistle marks a danger from personal ambition, arrogating to itself undue authority within the Church. Diotrephes in all probability was a bishop. At Rome there has been a permanent Diotrephes in the office of the Papacy; how much this[Pg 305] has had to say to the dislocation of Christendom, God knows. But there are other smaller and more vulgar continuators of Diotrephes, who occupy no Vatican. Priests! But there are priests in different senses. The priest who stands to minister in holy things, the true Leitourgos is rightly so-called. But there is an arrogant priestship which would do violence to conscience, and interpose rudely between God and the soul. Priests in this sense are called by different names. They are clad in different dresses --- some in chasubles, some in frock-coats, some in petticoats. "Down with priestcraft," is even the cry of many of them. The priest who stands to offer sacrifice may or may not be a priest in the evil sense; the priest (who abjures the name) who is a master of religious small-talk of the popular kind, and winds people to his own ends round his little finger by using them deftly, is often the modern edition of Diotrephes.
This brief Epistle contains one of those apparently mere spiritual truisms, which make St. John the most powerful and comprehensive of all spiritual teachers. He had suggested a warning to Caius, which serves as the link to connect the example of Diotrephes which he has denounced, with that of Demetrius which he is about to commend. "Beloved!" he cries, "imitate not that which is evil, but that which is good." A glorious little "Imitation of Christ," a compression of his own Gospel, the record of the Great Example in three words Then follows this absolutely exhaustive division, which covers the whole moral and spiritual world. "He that does, good," (the whole principle of whose moral life is this,) "is of," has his origin from, "God;" "he that does, evil has not seen God," sees Him not as a consequence of having[Pg 306] spiritually looked upon Him. Here, at last, we have the flight of the eagle's wing, the glance of the eagle's eye. Especially valuable are these words, almost at the close of the Apostolic age and of the New Testament Scripture. They help us to keep the delicate balance of truth; they guard us against all abuse of the precious doctrines of grace. Several texts are mutilated; more are conveniently dropped out. How seldom does one see the whole context quoted, in tracts and sheets, of that most blessed passage --- "if we walk in the light, as He is in the light, the blood of Jesus, His Son, cleanses, us from all sin?" How often do we see these words at all --- "he that does, good is of God, but he that does, evil has not seen God?" Perhaps it may be a lingering suspicion that a text which comes out of a very short Epistle is worth very little. Perhaps doctrinalism à outrance considers that the sentiment "savours of works." But, at all events, there is terrible decisiveness about these antithetic propositions. For each life is described in section and in plan by one or other of the two. The whole complicated series of thought, actions, habits, purposes, summed up in the words life and character, is a continuous stream issuing from the man who necessarily is doing every moment of his existence. The stream is either pure, bright, cleansing, gladdening, capable of being tracked by a thread of emerald wherever it flows; or it carries with it on its course blackness, bitterness, and barrenness. Men must be plainly dealt with. They may hold any creed, or follow any round of religious practices. There are creeds which are nobly true, others which are false and feeble --- practices which are beautiful and elevating, others which are petty and unprofitable. They may repeat the shibboleth ever so accurately; and follow the observances ever so closely.[Pg 307] They may sing hymns until their throats are hoarse, and beat drums until their wrists are sore. But St. John's propositions ring out, loud and clear, and syllable themselves in questions, which one day or other the conscience will put to us with terrible distinctness. Are you one who is ever doing good; or one who is not doing good? "God be merciful to me a sinner!" may well rush to our lips. But that, when opportunity is given, must be followed by another prayer. Not only --- "wash away my sins." Something more. "Fill and purify me with Your Spirit, that, pardoned and renewed, I may become good, and be doing good." It is sometimes said that the Church is full of souls "dying of their morality." Is it not at least equally true to say that the Church is full of souls dying of their spirituality? That is --- souls dying in one case of unreal morality; in the other of unreal spirituality, which juggles with spiritual words, making a sham out of them. Morality which is not spiritual, is imperfect; spirituality which is not moralized through and through is of the spirit of evil.
It is a great thing that in these last sentences, written with a trembling hand, which shrank from the labour of pen and ink, the Apostle should have lifted a word (probably current in the atmosphere of Ephesus among spiritualists and astrologers), from the low applications with which it was undeservedly associated; and should have rung out high and clear the Gospel's everlasting justification, the final harmony of the teaching of grace --- "he that does, good is of God."
The style of the third Epistle of St. John is certainly that of an old man. It is reserved in language and in doctrine. God is thrice and thrice only mentioned. Jesus is not once expressly uttered. But
"... They are not empty-hearted whose low sound Reverbs no hollowness."
In religion, as in everything else, we are earnest, not by aiming at earnestness, but by aiming at an object. Religious language should be deep and real, rather than demonstrative. It is not safe to play with sacred names. To pronounce them at random for the purpose of being effective and impressive is to take them in vain. What a wealth of reverential love there is in that --- "for the sake of the Name!" Old copyists sometimes thought to improve upon the impressiveness of Apostles by cramming in sacred names. They only maimed what they touched with clumsy hand. A deeper sense of the Sacramental Presence is in the hushed, awful, reverence of "not discerning the Body," than in the interpolated "not discerning of the Lord's Body." Even so "The Name," perhaps, speaks more to the heart, and implies more than "His Name." It is, indeed, the "beautiful Name," by the which we are called. And sometimes in sermons, or in Eucharistic "Gloria in Excelsis," or in hymns that have come from such as St. Bernard, or in sick rooms, it shall go up with our sweetest music, and waken our tenderest thoughts, and be "as ointment[Pg 309] poured forth." But what an underlying Gospel, what an intense suppressed flame there is behind these quiet words! This letter says nothing of rapture, of prophecy, of miracle. It lies in the atmosphere of the Church, as we find it even now. It has a word for friendship. It seeks to individualise its benediction. A hush of evening rests upon the note. May such an evening close upon our old age!
Ver. 2 ... your soul.] Strange difficulty seems to be felt in some quarters about the word ψυχη, as used by our Lord and the Apostles. The difficulty arises from a singular argument advanced by M. Renan. He maintains that Christ and His first followers knew nothing of "the soul" as the immortal principle in man --- that in him which is capable of being saved or lost. It was simply, according to him, either the animal natural life (Matt. ii. 20; John xii. 25); or at most the vague Greek immortality of the shadows, as opposed to the later Hebrew Resurrection-life. But there are very numerous passages in the New Testament where "soul" can only be used for "life as created by God;" for the thinking substance, different from the body and indestructible by death, created with possibilities of eternal happiness or misery. (The following passages are decisive --- Matt. x. 28, xi. 29; Acts ii. 27; 2 Cor. xii. 13; Heb. xiii. 17; 1 Pet. i. 9, 22, ii. 11, 25; Jas. i. 21, v. 20; 3 John 2; Apoc. vi. 9, xx. 4).
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" " "
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 I venture to call attention to the rendering "very." It enables the translator to mark the important distinction between two words: αληθης, factually true and real, as opposed to that which in point of fact is mendacious; αληθινος, ideally true and real, that which alone realizes the idea imperfectly expressed by something else. This is one of St. John's favourite words. In regard to αγαπη I have not had the courage of my convictions. The word "charity" seems to me almost providentially preserved for the rendering of that term. It is not without a purpose that ερως is so rigorously excluded from the New Testament. [So also from the Epp. of Ignatius.] The objection that "charity" conveys to ordinary English people the notion of mere material alms is of little weight. If "charity" is sometimes a little metallic, is not "love" sometimes a little maundering? I agree with Canon Evans that the word, strictly speaking, should be always translated "charity" when alone, "love" when in regimen. Yet I have not been bold enough to put "God is charity" for "God is love."
 Cary's Dante, Paradiso, xxv. 117. Stanley's Sermons and Essays on the Apostolic Age, 242.
 Apoc. ii. 24.
 John xiii. 30 cf. 1 John ii, 11.
 εσκηνωσεν εν ἡμιν.
 This characteristic of St. John's style is powerfully expressed by the great hymn-writer of the Latin Church.
"Hebet sensus exors styli; Stylo scribit tam subtili, Fide tam catholicâ, Ne de Verbo salutari Posset quicquam refragari Pravitas hæretica." Adam of St. Victor, Seq. xxxii.
 John xii. 20-34, especially ver. 24.
 Acts i. 13.
 Acts iii. 4, v. 13, viii. 14.
 Gal. ii. 9.
 Acts iii. 4, iv. 13, viii. 14. The singular and interesting manuscript of Patmos (Αι περιοδοι του θεολογου) attributed to St. John's disciple, Prochorus, seems to recognise that St. John's chief mission was not that of working miracles. Even in a kind of duel of prodigies between him and the sinister magician of Patmos, the following occurs. "Kynops asked a young man in the multitude where his father then was. 'My father is dead,' he replied, 'he went down yonder in a storm.' Turning to John, the magician said, --- 'Now then, bring up this young man's father from the dead.' 'I have not come here,' answered the Apostle, 'to raise the dead, but to deliver the living from their errors.'"
 Gal. ii. 9; Acts xxi. 17, sqq.
 John xxi. 7.
 Ibid., vers. 17, 18, 19.
 The beginning of old age would account sufficiently for the anticipation of death in 2 Peter i. 13, 14, 15.
 δοξασει ver. 19. The lifelike shall (not should) is part of the many minute but vivid touches which make the whole of this scene so full of motion and reality --- "I go a fishing" (ver. 3); "about two hundred cubits" (ver. 8); the accurate αιγιαλος (ver. 4. See Trench, On Parables, 57; Stanley, Apostolic Age, 135).
 διορατικωτερος. S. Joann. Chrysost. --- Hom. in Joann.
 Euseb. H. E., iii. 23. See other quotations in Bilson, Government of Christ's Church, p. 365.
 Ap. Euseb. H. E., v. 20.
 Adv. Hæres., lib. iii., ch. 1.
 ἱερευς το πεταλον πεφορεκως --- "Pontifex ejus (sc. Domini) auream laminam in fronte habens." So translated by S. Hieron. Lib. de Vir. Illust., xlv. The πεταλον is the LXX. rendering of צִיץ, the projecting leaf or plate of radiant gold (Exod. xxviii. 26, xxxix. 30), associated with the "mitre" (Lev. viii. 9). Whether Polycrates speaks literally, or wishes to convey by a metaphor the impression of holiness radiating from St. John's face, we probably cannot decide.
 Acts xix. 20, 21. In this description of Ephesus the writer has constantly had in view the passages to which he referred in the Speakers Commentary, N.T., iv., 274, 276. He has also studied M. Renan's Saint Paul, chap, xii., and the authorities cited in the notes, pp. 329, 350.
 St. John ii. 2, iv. 14.
 "We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against," etc. Eph. vi. 12-17.
 Saint Paul, Renan, 318, 319.
 For the almost certain reference here to the Chaldean Sybil Sambethe, see Apoc ii. 20, Archdeacon Lee's note in Speaker's Commentary, N.T., iv. 527, 534, 535, and Dean Blakesley (art. Thyatira, Dict. of the Bible).
 1 John iv. 1, 3.
 1 John ii. 7, ii. 24, iii. 11; 2 John vv. 5, 6. The passage in ii. 24 is a specimen of that simple emphasis, that presentation of a truth or duty under two aspects, which St. John often produces merely by an inversion of the order of the words. "You --- what you heard from the beginning let it abide in you. If what from the beginning you heard abide in you" (ὁ ηκουσατε απ' αρχης ... ὁ απ' αρχης ηκουσατε). The emphasis in the first clause is upon the fact of their having heard the message; in the second upon this feature of the message --- that it was given in the beginning of Christianity amongst them, and kept unchanged until the present time. Cf. εντολη παλαια (ii. 7) with αρχαιος = "of the early Christian time," in Polycarp, Ep. ad Philipp., i.
 Acts xviii. 18-21. To these general links connecting our Epistles with Ephesus, a few of less importance, yet not without significance, may be added. (1) The name of Demetrius (3 John 12) is certainly suggestive of the holy city of the earth-mother (Acts xix. 24, 38). Vitruvius assigns the completion of the temple of Ephesus to an architect of the name, and calls him "servus Dianæ." (2) St. John in his Gospel adopts, as if instinctively, the computation of time which was used in Asia Minor (John iv. 6, xix. 4 --- Hefel. Martyrium S. Polycarp. xxi.). On the same principle he speaks in the Apocalypse of "day and night" (Apoc. iv. 8, vii. 15, xii. 10, xiv. 11, xx. 10); St. Paul, on the other hand, speaks of "night and day" (1 Tim. v. 5). It is a very real indication of the accuracy of the report of words in the Acts that, while St. Luke himself uses either form indifferently (Luke ii. 37, xviii. 2), St. Paul, as quoted by him, always says "night and day" (Acts xx. 31, xxvi. 7). (3) Is it merely fanciful to conjecture that the unusual αγαθοποιων (3 John 11) may be an allusion to the astrological language in which alone the term is ever used outside a very few instances in the sacred writers? "He only is under a good star, and has beneficent omens for his life." Balbillus, one of the most famous astrologers of antiquity, the confidant of Nero and Vespasian, was an Ephesian, and almost supreme in Ephesus, not long before St. John's arrival there. Sueton., Neron., 36.
 Aïa-so-Louk, a corruption of ἁγιος θεολογος, holy theologian (or ἁγια θεολογου, holy city of the theologian). Some scholars, however, assert that the word is often pronounced and written aiaslyk, with the common Turkish termination lyk. See S. Paul (Renan, 342, note 2).
 Bengel, on Acts xix. 19, 20, finds a reference to manuscripts of some of the synoptical Gospels and of the Epistles in 2 Tim. iv. 13, and conjectures that, after St. Paul's martyrdom, Timothy carried them with him to Ephesus.
 Renan's curious theory that Rom. xvi. 1-16 is a sheet of the Epistle to the Ephesians accidentally misplaced, rests upon a supposed prevalence of Ephesian names in the case of those who are greeted. Archdeacon Gifford's refutation, and his solution of an unquestionable difficulty, seems entirely satisfactory. (Speaker's Commentary, in loc., vol. iii., New Testament.)
 It has become usual to say that the Epistle does not advert to John iii. or John vi. To us it seems that every mention of the Birth of God is a reference to John iii. (1 John ii. 23, iii. 9, iv. 7, v. 1-4.) The word αιμα occurs once only in the fourth Gospel outside the sixth chapter (xix. 34; for i. 13 belongs to physiology). Four times we find it in that chapter --- vi. 53, 54, 55, 56. Each mention of the "Blood" in connection with our Lord does advert to John vi.
 The masc. part. οι μαρτυρουντες is surely very remarkable with the three neuters (το πνευμα, το ὑδωρ, το αιμα) 1 John v. 7, 8.
 1 John i. 7, v. 6, 8.
 See note A. at the end of this Discourse, which shows that there are, in truth, four such summaries.
 ὁ ακηκοαμεν.
 ὁ εωρακαμεν τοις οφθαλμοις ἡμων.
 John xx. 20.
 ὁ εθεασαμεθα, 1 John i. 1. The same word is used in John i. 14.
 John xix. 27 would express this in the most palpable form. But it is constantly understood through the Gospel. The tenacity of Doketic error is evident from the fact that Chrysostom, preaching at Antioch, speaks of it as a popular error in his day. A little later, orthodox ears were somewhat offended by some beautiful lines of a Greek sacred poet, too little known among us, who combines in a singular degree Roman gravity with Greek grace. St. Romanus (A.D. 491) represents our Lord as saying of the sinful woman who became a penitent,
την βρεξασαν ιχνη ἁ ουκ ἑβρεξε βυθος ψιλοις τοτε τοις δακρυσιν.
"Which with her tears, then pure, Wetted the feet the sea-depth wetted not."
(Spicil. Solesmen. Edidit T. B. Pitra, S. Romanus, xvi. 13, Cant. de Passione. 120.)
 1 John i. 2. The Life with the Father = John i. 1, 14. The Life manifested = John i. 14 to end.
 The A.V. (1 John v. 6-12) obscures this by a too great sensitiveness to monotony. The language of the verses is varied unfortunately by "bear record" (ver. 7), "has testified" (ver. 9), "believes, not the record" (ver. 10), "this is the record" (ver. 11).
 1 John ii. 2-29, iii. 7, iv. 3, v. 20.
 John xv. 26.
 John xiv., xv., xvi., Cf. vii. 39. The witness of the Spirit in the Apostolic ministry will be found John xx. 22.
 John i. 19.
 John i. 16, 31, 33.
 John ii. 9, iv. 46.
 John iii. 5.
 John iv. 5, 7, 11, 12, v. 1, 8, vi. 19, vii. 35, 37, ix. 7, xiii. 1, 14, xix. 34, xxi. 1, 8. In the other great Johannic book water is constantly mentioned. Apoc. vii. 7, xiv. 7, xvi. 5, xxi. 6, xxii. 1, xxii. 17. (Cf. the το ὑδωρ, Acts x. 47.)
 John i. 19, 29, 32, 34, 35, 36, 41, 45, 47, xix. 27.
 John xv. 27.
 John iii. 2. The Baptist's final witness (iii. 25, 33, iv. 39, 42, v. 15, vi. 68, 69, vii. 46, xix. 4, 6). Note, too, the accentuation of the idea of witness (John v. 31, 39). It is to be regretted that the R.V. also has sometimes obscured this important term by substituting a different English word, e.g., "the word of the woman who testified" (John iv. 39).
 John viii. 18, xii. 28.
 Ibid. viii. 17, 18.
 Ibid. xv. 26.
 Ibid. v. 39, 46, xix. 35, 36, 37.
 Ibid. v. 36.
 This sixth witness (1 John v. 10) exactly answers to John xx. 30, 31.
 ὁ πιστευων εις τον υιον, κτλ (v. 10). The construction is different in the words which immediately follow (ὁ μη πιστευων τω θεγ), not even giving Him credence, not believing Him, much less believing on Him.
 The view here advocated of the relation of the Epistle to the Gospel of St. John, and of the brief but complete analytical synopsis in the opening words of the Epistle, appears to us to represent the earliest known interpretation as given by the author of the famous fragment of the Muratorian Canon, the first catalogue of the books of the N. T. (written between the middle and close of the second century). After his statement of the circumstances which led to the composition of the fourth Gospel, and an assertion of the perfect internal unity of the Evangelical narratives, the author of the fragment proceeds. "What wonder then if John brings forward each matter, point by point, with such consecutive order (tam constanter singula), even in his Epistles saying, when he comes to write in his own person (dicens in semetipso), 'what we have seen with our eyes, and heard with our ears, and our hands have handled, these things have we written.' For thus, in orderly arrangement and consecutive language he professes himself not only an eye-witness, but a hearer, and yet further a writer of the wonderful things of the Lord." [So we understand the writer. "Sic enim non solum visorem, sed et auditorem, sed et scriptorem omnium mirabilium Domini, per ordinem profitetur." The fragment, with copious annotations, may be found in Reliquæ Sacræ, Routh, Tom. i., 394, 434.]
 For whatever reason, four classical terms (if we may so call them) of the Christian religion are excluded, or nearly excluded, from the Gospel of St. John, and from its companion document. Church, gospel, repentance, occur nowhere. Grace only once (John i. 14; see, however, 2 John 3; Apoc. i. 4; xxii. 21), faith as a substantive only once. (1 John v. 4, but in Apoc. ii. 13-19; xiii. 10; xiv. 123.)
 ἡν δε νυξ. John xiii. 30.
 John xix. 5.
 Canon. Murator. (apud Routh., Reliq. Sacræ, Tom. i., 394).
 εν τοπω ἡσυχω λεγομενω καταπαυσις.
 This passage is translated from the Greek text of the manuscript of Patmos, attributed to Prochorus, as given by M. Guérin. (Description de l'Isle de Patmos, pp. 25-29.)
 "Proprium est credentis ut cum assensu cogitet." "The intellect of him who believes assents to the thing believed, not because he sees that thing either in itself or by logical reference to first self-evident principles; but because it is so far convinced by Divine authority as to assent to things which it does not see, and on account of the dominance of the will in setting the intellect in motion." This sentence is taken from a passage of Aquinas which appears to be of great and permanent value. Summa Theolog. 2a, 2æ quæst. i. art. 4. quæst. v. art. 2.
 Acts xx. 30.
 τας βεβηλους κενοφωνιας, και αντιθεσεις της ψευδωνυμου γνωσεως. 1 Tim. vi. 20. The "antitheses" may either touch with slight sarcasm upon pompous pretensions to scientific logical method; or may denote the really self-contradictory character of these elaborate compositions; or again, their polemical opposition to the Christian creed.
 μυθοις και γενεαλογιαις απεραντοις. 1 Tim. i. 3, 4.
 Irenæus quotes 1 Tim. i. 4, and interprets it of the Gnostic 'æons.' Adv. Hæres., i. Proœm.
 Few phenomena of criticism are more unaccountable than the desire to evade any acknowledgment of the historical existence of these singular heresies. Not long after St. John's death, Polycarp, in writing to the Philippians, quotes 1 John iv. 3, and proceeds to show that doketism had consummated its work down to the last fibres of the root of the creed, by two negations --- no resurrection of the body, no judgment. (Polycarp, Epist. ad Philip., vii.) Ignatius twice deals with the Doketæ at length. To the Trallians he delivers what may be called an antidoketic creed, concluding in the tone of one who was wounded by what he was daily hearing. "Be deaf then when any man speaks to you without Jesus Christ, who is of Mary, who truly was born, truly suffered under Pontius Pilate, truly was crucified and died, truly also was raised from the dead. But if some who are unbelieving say that He suffered apparently, as if in vision, being visionary themselves, why am I a prisoner? why do I choose to fight with wild beasts?" (Ignat., Ep. ad Trall., iv. x.) The play upon the name doketæ cannot be mistaken (λεγουσιν το δοκειν πεπονθεναι αυτον, αυτοι οντες το δοκειν). Ignatius writes to another Church --- "What profited it me if one praises, me but blasphemes, my Lord, not confessing that He bears true human flesh. They abstain from Eucharist and prayer, because they confess not that the Eucharist is flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ." (Ep. ad Smyrn., v. vi. vii.)
 The elder Mr. Mill, however, appears to have seriously leaned to this as a conceivable solution of the contradictory phenomena of existence.
 Life vol. ii., 359, 360.
 Much use has here been made of a truly remarkable article in the Spectator, Jan. 31st, 1885.
 2 Cor. v. 13-15.
 John i. 43.
 1 John iv. 19.
 1 John ii. 3.
 1 John iii. 4, v. 17.
 Every one who reads Greek should refer to the magnificent passage, S. Joann. Chrysos., in Joann., Homil. ii. 4.
 1 John iv. 2; 2 John v. 7. See notes on the passages.
 Psalm lviii. 18.
 John vi. 53.
 Apoc. xxi. 19, 20.
 1 John i. 6, cf. John iii. 21. In the LXX. the phrase is only found once, and is then applied to God: αληθειαν εποιησας (Neh. ix. 33). It is characteristic of St. John's style that doing a lie is found in Apoc. xxi. 27, xxii. 15.
 Apoc. xxii. 8.
 1 John v. 18.
 Ibid. 19.
 ἡκει, "has come, --- and is here." --- Ibid. 20.
 S. Joann. Chrysost., in Johan., Homil. iii., Tom. viii., 25, 36, Edit. Migne.
 Huther, while rejecting with all impartial critics the interpolation (1 John v. 7), writes thus: "when we embrace in one survey the contents of the Epistle as a whole, it is certainly easy to adapt the conception of the three Heavenly witnesses to one place after another in the document. But it does not follow that the mention of it just here would be in its right place." (Handbuch über der drei Briefe des Johannes. Dr. J. E. Huther.)
 1 John ii. 20.
 1 John i. 7, iii. 3.
 1 John ii. 6.
 "Imitate not that which is evil, but that which is good" (3 John 12). A comparison of this verse with John xxi. 24 would lead to the supposition that the writer of the letter is quoting the Gospel, and assumes an intimate knowledge of it on the part of Caius. See Discourse XVII. Part ii. of this vol.
 See note A at the end of this discourse.
 1 John iv. 9.
 1 John iv. 20.
 1 John iv. 16.
 πεπιστευκαμεν την αγαπην, 1 John iv. 16.
 For the aor. conj. in this place as distinguished from the pres. conj. cf. John v. 20, 23, vi. 28, 29, 30. Professor Westcott's refined scholarship corrects the error of many commentators, "that the Apostle is simply warning us not to draw encouragement for license from the doctrine of forgiveness." The tense is decisive against this, the thought is of the single act not of the state.
 εαν τις ἁμαρτη, 1 John ii. 1.
 In Epist. Johann., Tract. I.
 1 John ii. 12, is, of course, an important exception.
 1 John iii. 19, 20.
 See Prof. Westcott's valuable note on 1 John v. 15. The very things literally asked for would be τα αιτηθεντα, not τα αιτηματα.
 2 John 11.
 3 John 10.
 Mart. Ignat., i. S. Hieron, de Script. Eccles., xvii.
 ὁ λεγων, 1 John ii. 4, 6, 9.
 Ignat. Epist. ad Ephes., xv., cf. 1 John ii. 14, iv. 9, 17, iii. 2.
 S. Ignat. Epist. ad Philad., iv.; cf. Epist. ad Smyrn., vii.; Epist. ad Ephes., xx.
 The most elaborate passage in the Ignatian remains is probably this. "Your Presbytery is fitted together harmoniously with the Bishop as chords with the cithara. Hereby in your symphonious love Jesus Christ is sung in concord. Taking your part man by man become one choir, that being harmoniously accordant in your like-mindedness, having received in unity the chromatic music of God (χρωμα Θεου λαβοντες), you may sing with one voice through Jesus Christ to the Father." --- Epist. ad Ephes., iv. The same image is differently applied, Epist. ad Philad., i.
 The story is given by Socrates. (H. E., vi. 8.)
 1 John iv. 7, 12.
 1 John ii. 6, 9, i. 7-10, ii. 1, 2.
 1 John i. 7, ii. 2, iv. 3, 6; 2 John 7-11; 3 John 9, 10.
 1 John iii. 19, v. 14, 15, iv. 2, 3, v. 4, 5, 18.
 These sentences do not go so far as the mischievous and antiscriptural legend of later ascetic heretics, who marred the beauty and the purpose of the miracle at Cana, by asserting that John was the bridegroom, and that our Lord took him away from his bride. Acta Johannis, XXI. Act. Apost. Apoc., Tisch., 275).
 This legend no doubt arose from the promise --- "if they drink any deadly thing it shall not hurt them" (Mark xvi. 18).
"Virus fidens sorbuit." Adam of St. Victor, Seq. XXXIII.
"Aurum hic de frondibus, Gemmas de silicibus, Fractis de fragminibus, Fecit firmas." --- Ibid.
There is something interesting in the persistency of legends about St. John's power over gems, when connected with the passage, flashing all over with the light of precious stones, whose exquisite disposition is the wonder of lapidaries. Apoc. xxi, 18, 22.
 See note B at the end of the Discourse.
 1 John v. 18.
 Ibid. v. 19.
 Ibid. v. 20.
 Said by Luther of Psalm xxii. 1.
 See the noble and enthusiastic preface to the washing of the disciples' feet (John xiii. 1, 2, 3).
 The phrase probably means the Logos, the Personal "Word who is at once both the Word and the Life." For the double genitive, the second almost appositional to the first, conf. John ii. 21, xi. 13. This interpretation would seem to be that of Chrysostom. "If then the Word is the Life; and if this Christ who is at once the Word and the Life became flesh; then the Life became flesh." (In Joan. Evang. v.)
 Gen. i. 1; Prov. viii. 23; Micah v. 2.
 Cf. John vi. 36, 40. The word is applied by the angel to the disciples gazing on the Ascension, Acts i. 11. The Transfiguration may be here referred to. Such an incident as that in John vii. 37 attests a vivid delighted remembrance of the Saviour's very attitude.
 Luke xxiv. 39; John xx. 27.
 Gospel i. 1-14; 1 John i. 1; Apoc. i. 9.
 "He has a name written which no one knows, but He Himself, --- and His name is called The Word of God" (Apoc. xix. 12, 13). Gibbons' adroit italics may here be noted. "The Logos, TAUGHT in the school of Alexandria BEFORE Christ 100 --- REVEALED to the Apostle St. John, Anno Domini, 97" (Decline and Fall, ch. xxi.). Just so very probably --- though whether St. John ever read a page of Philo or Plato we have no means of knowing.
 The following table may be found useful: ---
THE WORD IN ST. JOHN IS OPPOSED.
(A) To the Gnostic Word, created and temporal
(A) Uncreated and Eternal. "In the beginning was the Word."
(B) To the Platonic Word, ideal and abstract
(B) Personal and Divine. "The Word was God." "He" --- "His."
(C) To the Judaistic and Philonic Word --- the type and idea of God in creation ...
(C) Creative and First Cause. "All things were made by Him."
(D) To the Dualistic Word --- limitedly and partially instrumental in creation.
(D) Unique and Universally Creative. "Without Him was not anything made that has been made."
(E) To the Doketic Word --- impalpable and visionary
(E) Real and Permanent. "The Word became flesh."
 Vie de Jesus, Int. 4.
 The appeal to the senses of seeing and hearing is a trait common to all the group of St. John's writings (John i. 14, xix. 35; 1 John i. 1, 2, iv. 14; Apoc. i. 2). The true reading (καγω Ιωαννης ὁ ακουων και βλεπων ταυτα. Apoc. xxi. 8, where hearing stands before seeing) is indicative of John's style.
 1 John v. 6-12.
 That the "Acts of Paul and Thecla" are of high antiquity there can be no rational doubt. Tertullian writes: "But if those who read St. Paul's writings rashly use the example of Thecla, to give licence to women to teach and baptize publicly, let them know that a presbyter of Asia Minor, who put together that piece, crowning it with the authority of a Pauline title, convicted by his own confession of doing this from love of St. Paul, was deprived of his orders." (Tertullian, De Baptismo, xvii.) On which St. Jerome remarks --- "We therefore relegate to the class of apocryphal writings, the περιοδος of Paul and Thecla, and the whole fable of the baptized lion. For how could it be that the sole real companion of the Apostle" (Luke) "while so well acquainted with the rest of the history, should have known nothing of this? And further, Tertullian, who touched so nearly upon those times, records that a certain presbyter in Asia Minor, convicted before John of being the author of that book, and confessing that as a σπουδαστης of the Apostle Paul he had done this from loving devotion to that great memory, was deposed from his ministry." (St. Hieron., de Script. Eccles., VII.) See the mass of authority for the antiquity of this document, which gives a considerable degree of probability to the statement about St. John, in Acta Apost. Apoc., Edit. Tischendorf. --- Proleg. xxi., xxvi.
 John iii, 24, 25.
 Those who are perplexed by the identity in style and turn of language between the Epistle and the discourse of our Lord in St. John's Gospel may be referred to the writer's remarks in The Speakers Commentary (N. T. iv. 286-89). It should be added that the Epp. to the Seven Churches (Apoc. ii., iii.) --- especially to Sardis --- interweave sayings of Jesus recorded by the Synoptical evangelists, e.g., "as a thief," Apoc. iii. 3, cf. Mark xiii. 37; "book of life," Apoc. iii. 5, cf. Luke x. 20; "confessing a name," Apoc. iii. 5, cf. Matt. x. 32; "He that has an ear," Apoc. iii. 6, 13, 22, and ii. 7, 11, 17, 29. This phrase, found in each of the seven Epp., occurs nowhere in the fourth Gospel, but constantly in the Synoptics. Cf. Matt. x. 27, xi. 15, xiii. 19, 43; Mark iv. 9, 23, vii. 16; Luke viii. 8, xiv. 35; cf. also "giving power over the nations," Apoc. ii. 26 --- with the conception in Matt. xix. 28; Luke xxii. 29, 30. The word repentance is nowhere in the fourth Gospel, nor given as part of our Lord's teaching; but we find it Apoc. ii. 5, 16, iii. 3, 19. If the author of the fourth Gospel was also the author of the Apocalypse, his choice of the style which he attributes to the Saviour was at least decided by no lack of knowledge of the Synoptical type of expression, and by no incapacity to use it with freedom and power.
 John xi. 16.
"Qui me suit, aux anges est pareil. Quand un homme a marché tout le jour au soleil Dans un chemin sans puits et sans hôtellerie, S'il ne croit pas quand vient le soir il pleure, il crie, Il est las; sur la terre il tombe haletant. S'il croit en moi, qu'il prie, il peut au même instant. Continuer sa route avec des forces triples." (Le Christ et le Tombeau.) Tom. i. 44.
 King Henry VIII., Act 2, Sc. 1. Contrast again our Lord before the council with St. Paul before that tribunal. In the case of one of the chief of saints there is the touch of human infirmity, the "something spoken in choler, ill and hasty," the angry and contemptuous "whited wall" --- the confession of hasty inconsiderateness (ουκ ἡδειν --- ὁτι εστιν αρχιερευς) which led to a violation of a precept of the law (Exod. xxii. 28).
 Preface to Ivanhoe.
 How the great sayings were accurately collected has not been the question before us in this discourse. But it presents little difficulty. It is not absurd to suppose (if we are required to postulate no divine assistance) that notes may have been taken in some form by certain members of the company of disciples. The profoundly thoughtful remark of Irenæus upon his own unfailing recollection of early lessons from Polycarp, would apply with indefinitely greater force to such a pupil as John, of such a teacher as Jesus. "I can thoroughly recollect things so far back better than those which have lately occurred; for lessons which have grown with us since boyhood are compacted into a unity with the very soul itself." (τη ψυχη ἑνουνται αυτη) Euseb., v. 29. But above all, whatever subordinate agency may have been employed in the preservation of those precious words, every Christian reverently acknowledges the fulfilment of the Saviour's promise --- "The Comforter, the Holy Ghost, He shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance whatsoever I have said to you" (John xiv. 26).
 Duc de Broglie. Revue des deux Mondes. 15 Jan. 1882. Coxe, House of Austria, vol. iii., chap. xcix., p. 415, sqq.
 John xiii. 30, xi. 35, xix. 5, xxii. 29-35.
 Observe in the Greek the μη ἁμαρτητε, which refers to single acts, not to a continuous state --- "that you may not sin."
 1 John ii. 2. As a translation, "towards" seems too pedantic; yet προς is ad-versus rather than apud, and with the accusative signifies either the direction of motion, or the relation between two objects. (Donaldson, Greek Grammar, 524). We may fittingly call the preposition here προς pictorial.
 The various meanings of κοσμος are fully traced below on 1 John ii. 17. There is one point in which the notions of κοσμος and αιων intersect. But they may be thus distinguished. The first signifies the world projected in space, the second in time. The supposition that the form of expression at the close of our verse is elliptical, and to be filled up by the repetition of "for the sins of the whole world" "is not justified by usage, and weakens the force of the passage." (Epistles of St. John, Westcott, p. 44.)
 As to doctrine. There are three "grand circles" or "families of images" whereby Scripture approaches from different quarters, or surveys from different sides, the benefits of our Lord's meritorious death. These are represented by, are summed up in, three words --- απολυτρωσις, καταλλαγη, ιλασμος. The last is found in the text and in iv. 10; nowhere else precisely in that form in the New Testament. "Ιλασμος (expiation or propitiation) and απολυτρωσις (redemption) is fundamentally one single benefit, i.e., the restitution of the lost sinner. Απολυτρωσις is in respect of enemies; καταλλαγη in respect of God. And here again the words ἱλασμ. and καταλλ. differ. Propitiation takes away offences as against God. Reconciliation has two sides. It takes away (a) God's indignation against us, 2 Cor. v. 18, 19; (b) our alienation from God, 2 Cor. v. 20." (Bengel on Rom. iii. 24. Whoever would rightly understand all that we can know on these great words must study New Testament Synonyms, Archbp. Trench, pp. 276-82.)
 Acts xvii. 27.
 Jonah i. 5.
 1 John ii. 28.
 2 John 9.
 Matt. xxiii. 15.
 Bouddhism, it is now said, appears to be on the wane, and the period for its disappearance is gradually approaching, according to the Boden Professor of Sanscrit at Oxford. In his opinion this creed is "one of rapidly increasing disintegration and decline," and "as a form of popular religion Bouddhism is gradually losing its vitality and hold on the vast populations once loyal to its rule." He computes the number of Bouddhists at 100,000,000; not 400,000,000 as hitherto estimated; and places Christianity numerically at the head of all religions --- next Confucianism, thirdly Hinduism, then Bouddhism, and last Mohammedanism. He affirms that the capacity of Bouddhism for resistance must give way before the "mighty forces which are destined to sweep the earth."
 That modern English writers have been more than just to Mohammed is proved overwhelmingly by the living Missionary who knows Mohammedanism best. --- Mohammed and Mohammedans. Dr. Koelle.
 The inner meaning of 1 John i. 8 exactly = ὑπακοη και ῥαντισμος (1 Peter i. 2). It is the obedient who are sprinkled.
 John xiv. 16, 26, xv. 26, xvi. 7.
 Aug. in loc.
 "Nomen facile supplent credentes, plenum pectus habentes memoriâ Domini." --- Bengel.
 Εκεινος in our Epistle belongs to Christ in every place but one where it occurs (1 John ii. 6, iii. 3, 5, 7, 16, iv. 17; cf. John i. 18, ii. 21). It is very much equivalent to our reverent usage of printing the pronoun which refers to Christ with a capital letter.
 Matt. vi. 45.
 δοξας βλασφημουντες (2 Peter ii. 10; Jude v. 8).
 Poems by Matthew Arnold ("Rugby Chapel," Nov. 1857), vol. ii., pp. 251, 255.
 ὁς μονος συνεπαθησεν πλανωμενω κοσμω. Acta Paul. et Thec. 16, Acta. Apost. Apoc. 47. Edit. Tischendorf.
 On Liberty. John Stuart Mill (chap. iii.).
 John viii. 12-35. For Apostolic usage of the word, see Acts i. 21; Rom. vi. 4; Ephes. ii. 10; Col. iii. 7.
 John vii. 1.
 "Ambulando docebat." --- Bretschneider.
 John xiii. 1-6.
 Ἱνα ποιω ... και τελειωσω (John iv. 34).
 After all deductions for the lack of accurate and searching textual exegesis, perhaps Bossuet's "Traité de la concupiscence, ou Exposition de ces Paroles de Saint Jean, 1 John ii. 15-17" (Œuvres de Bossuet, Tom. vii., 380-420), remains unrivalled.
 The word κοσμος originally signified ornament (chiefly perhaps of dress); figuratively it came to denote order. It was first applied by Pythagoras to the universe, from the conception of the order, which reigns in it (Plut., de Plac. Phil., ii. 1). From schools of philosophy it passed into the language of poets and writers of elevated prose. It is somewhat singular that the Romans, possibly from Greek influence, came to apply "mundus" by the same process to the world, as it had also originally signified ornament, especially of female dress (See Richard Bentley against Boyle, Opera Philol., 347-445, and Notes, Humboldt's Cosmos, xiii.). In the LXX. κοσμος does not appear as the translation of שׂלָם its spiritual equivalent in Hebrew; but very often in the sense of "ornament" and "order." (See Tromm., Concord. Gr. in LXX., 1, 913), but it is found as world several times in the Apocrypha (Wisdom vi. 26, vii. 18, ix. 3, xi. 18, xv. 14; 2 Mac. iii. 12, vii. 9-23, viii. 18, xiii. 14).
 John xvii. 24.
 In Hebrew תֵּבֵל habitable globe; translated οικουμενη in LXX. (see Psalm lxxxix. 11).
 John v. 11.
 John vi. 31; 1 John ii. 2.
 John iii. 16. It may be added that these are passages where the world as humanity generally passes into the darker meaning of that portion of it which is actively hostile to God. John xv. 18, 19.
 See note on ver. 16 at the end of the next Discourse.
 Gen. i. 31.
 John i. 3.
 The writer does not happen to remember any commentator who has pointed out this subtle but powerful thought, παν το εν τω κοσμω --- εκ του κοσμου εστιν (1 John ii. 16).
 1 John v. 19.
 John xiv. 1; 1 John iv. 2, 3; 2 John 7.
 John vi. 51, 53-56; 1 John iv. 2, 3; 2 John 7.
 ἡ αλαζονια του βιου.
 Gen. iii. 5.
 Gen. iii. 6.
 Gen. iii. 7.
 S. Augustin., Tract. in Joann. Epist.
 Mark vii. 21.
 1 John ii. 15, 16.
 Ibid. ver. 17.
 No portion of Prof. Westcott's Commentary is more thorough or more exquisite than his exposition here. (Epistles of St. John, 66.)
 "Extirpantia verba." St. August (in loc.).
 παραγεται. It has been said that this is not the real point; that what St. John here describes is not the general attribute of the world as transitory, but its condition at the moment when the Epistle was written, in presence of the manifestation of "the kingdom of God, which was daily shining forth." But surely the world can scarcely be so completely identified with the temporary framework of the Roman Empire; and the universality of the antithesis (ὁ δε ποιων κ.τ.λ.) and its intensely individual form, lead us to take κοσμος in that universal and inclusive signification which alone is of abiding interest to every age.
 Job xiv. 1, 2. Cf. x. 20-22.
 Such seems to be the meaning of אַבְלִינָה (Ps. xxxix. 14).
 Ps. xc. 9.
 James iv. 13-17. The passage 1 Pet. i. 25 is taken from the magnificent prophecy in which the fragility of all flesh, transitory as the falling away of the flowers of grass into impalpable dust, is contrasted with the eternity of the word of God. Isa. xl. 6, 7, LXX.
 "Possessa onerant, amata inquinant, amissa cruciant." --- St. Bernard.
 The view here taken of Bouddhism follows that of M. J. Barthelemy St. Hilaire. Le Bouddha et sa Réligion. Prémière partie, chap. v., pp. 141-182.
 "These populations neither deny nor affirm God. They simply ignore Him. To assert that they are atheists would be very much the same thing as to assert that they are anti-Cartesians. As they are neither for nor against Descartes, so they are neither for nor against God. They are just children. A child is neither atheist nor deist. He is nothing." --- Voltaire, Dict. Phil., Art. Athêisme.
 It is noteworthy that in the collects in the English Prayer-Book, and indeed in its public formularies generally (outside the Funeral Service, and that for the Visitation of the Sick), there are but two places in which the note of the "world passes away" is very prominently struck, viz., the Collect for the Fourth Sunday after Easter, and one portion of the prayer for "The Church Militant." One of the most wholesome and beautiful expressions of the salutary convictions arising from Christian perception of this melancholy truth is to be found in Dr. Johnson's "Prayer for the Last Day in the Year," as given in Mr. Stobart's Daily Services for Christian Households, pp. 99, 100.
 The old "Memento Mori" timepiece of Mary, Queen of Scots, is a watch in the interior of a death's-head, which opens to disclose it. Surely not a symbol likely to make any soul happier or better!
 The ουν in ver. 24 is not recognised by the R. V. nor adopted in Professor Westcott's text. One uncial (A), however, inserts it in 1 John iv. 19. It occurs in 3 John 8. This inferential particle is found with unusual frequency in St. John's Gospel. It does not seem satisfactory to account for this by calling it "one of the beginnings of modern Greek." (B. de Xivrey.) By St. John as an historian, the frequent therefore is the spontaneous recognition of a Divine logic of events; of the necessary yet natural sequence of every incident in the life of the "Word made Flesh." The ουν expresses something more than continuity of narrative. It indicates a connection of events so interlinked that each springs from, and is joined with, the preceding, as if it were a conclusion which followed from the premiss of the Divine argument. Now a mind which views history in this light is just the mind which will be dogmatic in theology. The inspired dogmatic theologian will necessarily write in a style different from that of the theologian of the Schools. The style of the former will be oracular; that of the latter will be scholastic, i.e., inferential, a concatenation of syllogisms. The syllogistic ουν is then naturally absent from St. John's Epistles. The one undoubted exception is 3 John 8, where a practical inference is drawn from an historical statement in ver. 7. The writer may be allowed to refer to The Speaker's Commentary, iv., 381.
 Jer. xxxi. 34.
 Vers. 18, 22.
 The last hour is not a date arbitrarily chosen and written down as a man might mark a day for an engagement in a calendar. It is determined by history --- by the sum-total of the product of the actions of men who are not the slaves of fatality, who possess free-will, and are not forced to act in a particular way. It is supposed to derogate from the Divine mission of the Apostles if we admit that they might be mistaken as to the chronology of the closing hour of time. But to know that supreme instant would involve a knowledge of the whole plan of God and the whole predetermining motives in the appointment of that day, i.e., it would constructively involve omniscience. Cf. Mark xiii. 32, and our Lord's profound saying, Acts i. 7.
 John v. 43.
 1 John ii. 22, iv. 2, 3; 2 John 7-9.
 Ver. 19.
 Bingham's Antiquities, i., 462-524, 565.
 For other instances of this characteristic, see a subject introduced ii. 29, expanded iii. 9 --- another subject introduced iii. 21, expanded v. 14.
 το αυτου χρισμα, ver. 27, not το αυτο ("the same anointing," A. V.) "This most unusual order throws a strong emphasis on the pronoun." (Prof. Westcott.) The writer thankfully quotes this as it seems to him to bring out the dogmatic significance of the word, emphasised as it is by this unusual order --- the chrism, the Spirit of Him.
 1 John iii. 24.
 The reading of the A. V. is received into Tischendorf's text and adopted by the R. V. Another reading omits και and substitutes παντες for παντα so that the passage would run thus, "You have an unction from the Holy One. You all know (I have not written to you because you know not) the truth." As far as the difficulty of παντα is concerned, nothing is gained by the change, as the statement recurs in a slightly varied form in ver. 27.
 John xiv. 26.
 "Let that abide in you which you heard from the beginning," 1 John ii. 24. Cf. "Testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein you stand," 1 Pet. v. 12. "Even as our beloved brother Paul has written to you," 2 Pet. iii. 15. St. Paul has thus the attestation of St. John as well as of St. Peter.
 Ver. 27
 διδασκει --- εδιδαξεν.
 1 Cor. xi. 29.
 Ver. 11.
 John xv. 12-17. See also the stress laid upon the unity of believers; surely including love as well as doctrine in the great High-Priestly prayer, John xvii. 21-23.
 "The message that you heard from the beginning," conf. 1 John ii. 24.
 "Contrariorum eadem est scientia."
 This is one of the few references to the Old Testament history in St. John's Epistle (Gen. iv. 1-8). To the theology of the Old Testament there are many references; e.g., light and life. 1 John i. 1-5; John i. 4; Ps. xxxvi. 9. There is, however, another historical reference a few verses above (1 John iii. 8) --- a passage of primary importance because it recognises the whole narrative of the Fall in Genesis, and affords a commentary upon the words of Christ (John viii. 44). The writer has somewhere seen an interesting suggestion that ver. 12 may contain some allusion to the visit of Apollonius of Tyana to Ephesus. Apollonius incited the mob to kill a beggar-man for the purpose of placing himself on a level with Chalcas and others who caused the sacrifice of human victims. The date of this incident would apparently coincide with the closing years of St. John's life (Philostrat. vita Apollon., Act. ii., S. 5).
 Ver. 14.
 Vers. 14, 15.
 Ver. 12.
 Ver. 16.
 Ver. 17.
 Vers. 18, 19.
 Vers. 20, 21.
 "For The Love I rather urgently request you" (Phil. v. 9). The addition in the A.V. (of God) rather impairs the sweetness and power, the reverential reserve of the original.
 Of Prof. Westcott.
 Ver. 17.
 It is suggestive that on Quinquagesima Sunday, when 1 Cor. xiii. is the Epistle, St. Luke xviii. 31 sqq., is the Gospel. The lyric of love is joined with a fragment of its epic. That fragment tells us of a love which not only proclaimed itself ready to be sacrificed (Luke xviii. 31-33), but condescended individually to the blind importunate mendicant who sat by the wayside begging (vers. 35-43).
 The word here is βιος not ζωη. "Βιος period of life; hence the means by which it is sustained, means of life." (Archbp. Trench.) It is to be wished that the R. V. had either kept "the good" of the A. V., or adopted the word "living" --- the translation of βιος in Mark xii. 44; Luke xxi. 4.
 2 John 3.
 1 John i. 4, ii. 28, iii. 21, iv. 17, v. 14, iii. 19.
 1 John i. 4.
 τα σπλαγχνα (ver. 17). This however is the only occurrence of the word in St. John's writings. The substantive σπλαγχνα = emotions, is found in classical poets. But the verb σπλαγχνιζομαι occurs only in LXX. and New Testament --- and thus, like αγαπη, is almost born within the circle of revealed truth. The new dispensation so rich in the mercy of God (Luke i. 78), so fruitful in mercy from man to man, may well claim a new vocabulary in the department of tenderness and pity.
 1 John v. 6, conf. John xix. 34.
 θεωρη, ver. 17.
 "The love of which God is at once the object, and the author, and the pattern." (Prof. Westcott.)
 1 John iv. 19.
 Lord Meath.
 Apoc. xx. 12, 13.
 1 John ii. 28.
 αισχυνθωμεν απ' αυτου, see Jerem. xii. 13 (for בּושׁ מִן). Prof. Westcott happily quotes, "as a guilty thing surprised."
 Coming, εν τη παρουσια αυτου. The word is not found elsewhere in the Johannic group of writings. But by his use of it here, St. John falls into line with the whole array of apostolic witnesses --- with St. Matthew (xxiv. 3-27, 37, 39); with St. Paul (passim); with St. James (v. 7, 8); with St. Peter (2 Peter i. 16, iii. 4-12). This fact may well warn critics of the precarious character of theories founded upon "the negative phenomena of the books of the New Testament." (See Professor Westcott's excellent note, The Epistles of St. John, 80.)
 (εν τη ἡμερα της κρισεως) --- "in the Day of the Judgment" --- cf. Apoc. xiv. 7. We have "in THE Judgment" (Matt. xii. 41, 42; Luke x. 14, xi. 31, 32) --- the indefinite "day of judgment" (Matt. x. 15, xi. 22, 24; Mark vi. 11).
 2 Pet. ii. 9, iii. 7 --- but "The Day of The Judgment," here only.
 Cf. our Lord's words --- "from now on(απ' αρτι) you shall see the Son of Man coming." (Matt. xxvi. 64.)
 John v. 21, 29.
 Ver. 21.
 Ver. 26.
 Ver. 24.
 Ver. 28, 29.
 The writer ventures to lament the substitution of "judgment" for "condemnation," ver. 24. R.V. It is a verbal consistency, or minute accuracy, purchased at the heavy price of a false thought, suggested to many readers who are not scholars. "In John's language κρισις is, (a) that judgment which came in pain and misery to those who rejected the salvation offered to mankind by Christ, iii. 19, κ.τ.λ., ερχεσθαι εις κρισιν, to fall into the state of one thus condemned, v. 24. (b) Judgment of condemnation to the wicked, with ensuing rejection, v. 29." Grimm. Lex. N.T. 247. Between this passage of the fourth Gospel and Apoc. xx., there is a marvellous inner harmony of thought. "The first resurrection" (ver. 6) = John v. 21, 26; then vv. 11, 12, 13 = John v. 28, 29.
 Heb. ix. 27; 2 Cor. v. 10, cf. Rom. xiv. 10; Apoc. xx. 11, 12, 13.
 μεθ' ἡμων --- God's love in itself is perfected. It might be made as perfect as man's nature will admit by an instantaneous act; but God works jointly, in companionship with us. The grace of God "preventing us that we may will, works with us when we will." The essential idea of μετα is companionship or connection. (See Donaldson, Gr. Gr., 50, 52 a.)
 ελευθεριας ἡ πολις μεστη και παρρησιας γιγνεται. (Plat., Rep., 557 B). The word is derived from παν and ῥησις.
 Ephes. i. 18.
 Cf. Matt. v. 48.
 Ver. 18.
 Bengel. The writer must acknowledge his obligation to Professor Westcott, whose exposition gives us a peculiar conception of the depth of St. John's teaching here. (The Epistles of St. John, 149-153).
 This is expressed, after St. John's fashion, by the neuter, παν το γεγεννημενον εκ του Θεου. ver. 4.
 ἡ πιστις ἡμων, ver. 4.
 ὁ νικων τον κοσμον, ὁ πιστευων, ver. 5.
 1 John ii. 29.
 1 John iv. 7.
 John iii. 5.
 σφοδρα αινιγματωδης και σκοτεινως ειρημενος. Euseb.
אִישׁ וְאִישׁ יֻלַּר־בָּהּ.
Ver. 6. Psalm lxxxvii.
"Both they who sing and they who dance, With sacred song are there; In you fresh brooks and soft streams glance, And all my fountains clear." Milton, Paraphrase Ps. lxxxvii. 7.
This, on the whole, seems to be considered the most tenable interpretation.
 Συ ει ὁ διδασκαλος του Ισραηλ; John iii. 10.
 John i. 26, ii. 6, 9, iii. 5-22, iv. 6-16, v. 3, vii. 37, 39, ix. 7, xiii. 1-5, xix. 34.
 Hooker, E. P., V. lix. (4).
 So the perfect is used throughout. γεγεννηται. ii. 29, iii. 9, iv. 7. παν το γεγεννημενον. v. 4. Very remarkably below, πας ὁ γεγεννημενος --- αλλα ὁ γεννηθεις εκ του Θεου; the first of the regenerate man who continues in that condition of grace, the second of the Begotten Son of God who keeps His servant. 1 John v. 18.
 Training of children; or How to Make the Children into Saints and Soldiers of Jesus Christ. By the General of the Salvation Army. London: Salvation Army Book Stores, pp. 162, 163.
 Not quite, cf. Rom. viii. 37, xii, 21; 1 Cor. xv. 55, 57. The substantive νικη occurs only 1 John v. 4. A slightly different form (νικος) is in Matt. xii. 20; 1 Cor. xv. 54, 55, 57.
 John xvi. 33.
 John ii. 13, 14.
 1 John iv. 4.
 It does not seem possible to convey to the English reader the fourfold harping upon the word (1 John v. 4, 5) by any other rendering. "The victory that has overcome the world" (R.V.) fails in this. The noble translation of ὑπερνικωμεν (Rom. viii. 37), happily retained by the Revisers, is rendered consistent by the translation here proposed.
 Apoc. ii. 13, xiv. 12.
 Fides quæ creditur, not quâ creditur.
"You who art victory!" Wordsworth, Ode to Duty.
 ὑπερνικωμεν. Rom. viii. 37.
 δεδωκεν ἡμιν διανοιαν ἱνα γινωσκομεν κ.τ.λ. 1 John v. 20. N. T. lexicographers give as its meaning intelligentia (einsicht). See Grimm. Bretschn., s.v. Prof. Westcott remarks that "generally nouns which express intellectual powers are rare in St. John's writings." But διανοια is the word by which the LXX. translate the Hebrew לֵב, and has thus a moral and emotional tinge imparted to it. We may compare the sense in which Aristotle uses it in his Poetics for the cast of thought, or general sentiment. (Poet., vi.)
 ει την μαρτυριαν των ανθρωπων λαμβανομεν. 1 John v. 9.
 The A. V. (very unhappily) tried to minimise this reiteration by the introduction of synonyms in four places --- "bear record," "record" (vv. 7, 10, 11), "has testified" (ver. 9).
 ὁ ελθων.
 δι ὑδατος και αιματος.
 ουκ εν τω ὑδατι μονον, αλλ' εν τω ὑδατι και εν τω αιματι.
 τρεις εισιν οι μαρτυρουντες, ver. 7.
 The Water, John iii. 5, cf. i. 26-33, ii. 9, iii. 23, iv. 13, v. 4, ix. 7. The Blood, vi. 53, 54, 56, xix. 34. The Spirit, vii. 39, xiv., xv., xvi., xx. 22. The water centres in Baptism (iii. 5); the blood is symbolised, exhibited, in Holy Communion (vi.); the Spirit is perpetually making them effective, and especially by the appointed ministry (xx. 22).
 ὁτι αυτη εστιν ἡ μαρτυρια του Θεου, ὁτι μεμαρτυρηκεν περι του υιου αυτου, ver. 9.
 v. 39, 46, etc.
 viii. 18.
 viii. 17, 18.
 ver. 36, x. 25.
 ὁ πιστευων εις τον υιον του Θεου, ver. 10. (See Bihs Ellicott on the force of various prepositions with πιστευω. Comment, on Pastoral Epistles.)
 Bentley. Letter of January 1st, 1717.
 The writer is entirely persuaded that St. John in chap. xx. 30, 31, refers to the Resurrection "signs," and not to miracles generally.
 Acts x. 41, 42. It is to be regretted that the R. V. has not boldly given us such an arrangement of the words in this important passage as would at once connect "made manifest" with "after He rose again from the dead," and avoid making the Apostle state that the chosen witnesses ate and drank with Christ after the Resurrection. St. Peter mentions that particular characteristic of the Apostles which made them judges not to be gainsayed of the identity of the Risen One with Him with whom they used to eat and drink.
 John xiv. 19-21.
 Τις τουτο ειδεν; γυνη παροιστρος, και ει τις αλλος των εκ της αυτης γοητειας. Ὁτε μεν ηπιστειτο εν σωματι πασιν ανιδην (freely, without restraint) εκηρυττεν, ὁτε δε πιστιν αν ισχυραν παρειχεν εκ νεκρων αναστας ἑνι μονω γυναιω και τοις ἑαυτου θεασιωταις (adepts, initiated) κρυβδην παρεφαινετω ... εχρην ειπερ οντως θειαν δυναμιν εκφηναι ηθελεν ὁ Ιησους αυτοις τοις επηρεασι και τω καταδικασαντι και ὁλως πασιν οφθηναι. [Celsus, ap. Orig., 2, 55, 59, 70, 63.] The passage is given in Rudolph Anger's invaluable Synopsis Evang. cum locis qui supersunt parallelis litterarum et traditionum Evang. Irenæo. antiquiorum. p. 254.
 γυνη παροιστρος, Celsus. "Moments sacrés ou la passion d'une hallucinée donne au monde un Dieu ressuscité." Renan, Vie de Jesus, 434.
 "Post Resurrectionem ... Dominus quum dedisset sindonem servo sacerdotis" --- Evang. ad Heb. --- Matt. xxvii. 59. --- R. Anger, Synopsis Evang., 288.
 Mark xvi. 8.
 Luke xxiv. 37.
 Luke xxiv. 41; John xx. 20.
 Ps. xxxiv. 15.
 John xxi. 12, cf. 7.
 Matt. xxviii. 13.
 1 Peter i. 3, 4; Apoc. i. 17, 18.
 See The Destiny of Man, viewed in the light of his origin, by John Fiske, especially the three remarkable chapters pp. 96-119.
 John xx. 10, 11.
 The word Ἑβραιστι had unfortunately dropped out of the T. R. John xx. 16.
 John xiv. 19.
 εν ἑαυτω, ver. 10.
 ὁ μη πιστευων τω Θεω, Ibid.
 ου πεπιστευκεν, Ibid.
 εις την μαρτυριαν ἡν μεμαρτυρηκεν ὁ Θεος περι του υιου αυτου. Ibid.
 παν το γεγεννημενον εκ του Θεου νικα τον κοσμον. ver. 4.
 With the neuter in ver. 4, contrast the individualising masculine in ver. 5, τις εστιν ὁ νικων.
 Mr. Matthew Arnold.
 This is true as a general rule; but there were exceptions.
 See Ps. xv. Cf. Ps. xxiv. 3-7.
 1 John v. 15.
 1 John v. 14, 18.
 Vv. 14, 15.
 Historical and Critical Commentary on Leviticus. By M. M. Kalisch. Part 1. Theology of the Past and Future, 431, 438.
 This is denied by De Wette (Ueber die Religion, Vorlesungen, 106).
 The form of expression indicates not necessarily the very things asked, but the spiritual essence and substance.
 Ἡ γαρ επαγγελια του λουτρου ουκ αλλη τις εστι κατ' αυτους, ἡ το εισαγαγειν εις την αμαραντον ἡδονην τον λουομενον κατ' αυτους ζωντ ὑδατι και χριομενον αλαλω χρισματι. --- (Philosoph., p. 140, de Naassenis.)
 Moyer Lecture, vi.
 John i. 18.
 There is no doubt a large amount of authority for this view that St. John addresses a Church personified. It has the support of sacred critics so different as Bishop Wordsworth and Bishop Lightfoot. (Ep. to Colossians and Philemon, 305), and Professor Westcott seems (with some hesitation) to lean to it. But there is also a great body of support, ancient and modern, for the literal view. (Clem. Alex., Adunbr. ad ii. Joan., Op., iii. 1011.) So Athanasius, or the author of "Synopsis S.S." in Athanasius, Opp., iv. 410. See also the heading of the A. V. ("He exhorts, a certain honourable matron, with her children.") For reasons for accepting Kyria rather than Electa as the name, see Speaker's Commentary, iv. 335.
 Ver. 12.
 ευρηκα, ver. 4.
 "James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars." Gal. ii. 9.
 Luke ii. 36.
 1 Tim. v. 3, 5, 10.
 1 Tim, v. 6-11, 12, 13.
 2 John 2.
 Ver. 1.
 δια την αληθειαν την μενουσαν εν ἡμιν, και μεθ' ἡμων εσται εις τον αιωνα. 2 John ver. 2.
 Irenæus, Hær., iii. 4.
 Ver. 7.
 Ver. 9.
 Ver. 5.
 "Commandments and commandment --- Love strives to realise in detail every separate expression of the will of God." (Prof. Westcott, Epistles of St. John, 217).
 Ver. 6.
 It is, probably, the existence of these verses (vv. 10, 11) which acts as a stimulus to many liberal Christian commentators in favour of the ultra-mystical view, that the lady addressed in this Epistle is a Church personified. It should be carefully noted that St. John speaks of a formal summons, so to speak, from an emissary of antichrist as such. (ει τις ερχεται προς ὑμας, ver. 10). St. John, also, must have detected a danger in the very gentleness of Kyria's character, or in the disposition of some of her children. So much, indeed, might seem implied in the sudden, solemn, and rather startling warning, which entreated constant continuous care (βλεπετε ἑαυτους), so that they should not in some momentary impulse, under the charm of some deceiver, lose what they had created, and with it reward in fulness (ἱνα μη απολεσητε, ver. 10).
 Titus iii. 4.
 1 Tim. i. 1; 2 Tim. i. 2.
 The construction altered to bring out the meaning more strikingly than a uniform structure could have done. --- Winer, Gr. Gr., Part III., § 3.
 Εσται μεθ' ὑμων χαρις, ελεος, ειρηνη, κ.τ.λ. 2 John ver. 3.
 Ιησουν Χριστον ερχομενον εν σαρκι. 2 John ver. 7.
 Ιησουν Χριστον εν σαρκι εληλυθοτα. 1 John iv. 2.
 Caius, a Macedonian (Acts xix. 29); Caius of Derbe (Acts xx. 4); Caius of Corinth (Rom. xvi. 23; 1 Cor. i. 14).
 Rom. xvi. 23.
 No doubt ver. 10 presents some difficulty. Voyages between Corinth were regularly and easily performed. Still it is scarcely probable that the aged Apostle should have contemplated such a voyage. But the form (εαν ελθω) purposely expresses possibility rather than probability --- the smallest amount of presumption --- if I shall come, which is not quite impossible. (Donaldson, Gr. Gr., "Conditional Propositions." 501.) The hope of seeing Caius "face to face" (ver. 14) contains no objection, as it may refer to a visit of Caius to Ephesus.
 "Synopsis S.S." '76. (S. Athanas., Opp., iv. 433. Edit. Migne.)
 Read together 3 John 12, and John xxi. 24.
 The writer had worked out his conclusions about Caius independently before he happened to read Bengel's note. "Caius Corinthi de quo Rom. xvi. 23, vel huic Caio, Johannis amico, fuit simillimus in hospitalite --- vel idem; --- si idem, ex Achaia in Asiam migravit, vel Corinthum Johannes hanc epistolam misit."
 Acts xix. 23-41.
 "Almost throughout all Asia this Paul has persuaded and turned away much people, saying, that they be no gods, which are made with hands." --- Acts xix. 26.
 vii. 46.
 Apoc. iii. 7, 8, 12.
 "All men."
 Και ὑπ' αυτης της αληθειας i.e., Jesus (Apoc. iii. 7, 12). This type of expression marks the "Asiatic school." So Papias; απ' αυτης της αληθειας (Ap. Euseb. H. E., iii. 39). Cf. John xiv. 6.
 "And we also bear witness." 3 John 12.
 3 John 5, 6, 7.
 2 John 9.
 3 John 9, 10.
 See authorities quoted by Archdeacon Lee (Speaker's Commentary, Tom. ii., N.T., p. 512).
 μιμου ... το αγαθον, 3 John 11.
 3 John 13.
 The verb αγαθοποιειν is found in a few places in the LXX and New Testament. "Amongst profane writers, astrologers only used this verb. They signified by it, I offer a good omen. So in Proclus and others." See Bretsch. and Grimm, s. v. αγαθοποιεω.
 "Worthily of God" ver. 6; "is of God --- has not seen God" ver. 11.
 Ver. 7.
 "The friends salute you: salute the friends by name," ver. 14 The mention of friendship is not common in the New Testament. Beautiful exceptions will be found in Luke xii. 4; John xi. 11, xv. 14, 15; cf. Acts xxvii. 3.
 As indicated by breathing --- from ψυχω
Transcriber's Notes: ◦Obvious punctuation and spelling errors have been fixed throughout. ◦Inconsistent hyphenation is as in the original. ◦Footnote  : Has no anchor, left as in the orginal text. ◦Footnote : Has no opening parenthesis, left as in the original. [... Tisch., 275).] ◦Page 241: Paragraph was modified to match better scan. Ending of the paragraph was removed and replaced with a dash. [... witness of men" --- if we consider ...].
From The Epistles Of St. John by WILLIAM ALEXANDER, D.D., D.C.L. Oxon., Hon. LL.D. Dublin, published by Hodder and Stoughton, 27, Paternoster Row, MDCCCXCVI Lightly updated to the language of the 21st century by D. N. Pham. (c) 2012.
Insights of the past for the present
Epistles of John 2/2 - W. Alexander
ON THE BOOK SHELF
May your insights be worthy.