21st Century Collection of Life Works.

The Universe is Clumping.

Disturbed by Ptolemy's geocentric model of the universe in which things evolve around us, Nicolaus Copernicus set the sun as the epic center around which planets, including the earth, revolve. His model greatly simplifies our view of the solar system. Centuries later, as we push limits of our understanding, Cosmology describes the universe as a spooky system in which all things around us are fleeing faster and faster, repulsed by unknown dark energy.

The root of the expanding universe model is the assumption the earth and everything in it, on it and orbiting around it, including homo sapiens, are constant while the rest of the universe is not. But perhaps we are not so important in the big universe, and a view in which our world is shrinking into clumps may provide a simpler model of the cosmos. It is likely supernovae have not been deserting us but our measuring stick, our ruler, has been shrinking over millennium.

Imagine many million years ago, at the moment a supernova exploded and sent its light toward us, we had a measuring stick, consisting of two marks, de units apart. Over time, our world has been clumping and our ruler has consequently been shrinking at velocity v (note: v is negative).

When a light beam from the supernova reaches an observer with the measuring stick many million years later (Δt), the marks have moved inward a negative distance Δd.

Δd = d - de = vΔt

The length of the stick is now d. As the observer measures wavelengths of the light beam, he notes a measurement discrepancy between the ruler as it was years ago and the now shrunken ruler. The measurement of a wavelength with the shrunken ruler can be related to the measurement of the same wavelength many million years ago by taking into account the shrinkage:

λo = λede / d


z = (λo - λe) / λe = ((λede/d) - λe) / λe = de/d - 1 = ( de - d ) / d


z = -Δd / d


de = d ( z+1 )

Where: λo is observed wavelength; λe is emitted wavelength; Δd is how much the ruler has shrunken; d is the length of the ruler and z is Hubble's redshift.

In the expanding universe model, the supernova at distance D seems to have moved a distance ΔD with recessional velocity V and we have:

ΔD / D = -Δd / d


VΔt / D = -vΔt / d


V / D = -v / d


V = -v ( D/d )

We have the definition of the Hubble constant H:

V = HD

By substituting V with -v(D/d)

-v ( D/d ) = HD


-v = Hd

Mathematically, this indicates the clumping universe model is compatible to the expanding universe model. The implications, however, are different.

In the expanding universe model, if the universe is accelerating its expansion then, in the clumping model, our world is clumping faster and faster. While we need to introduce a dark energy in the open space to account for the accelerated expansion in the expanding universe model, we must refine our understanding of various forces on earthly matters over long duration of time to quantify the accelerated contraction in the clumping model.

In the expanding universe model, if an emitter moves against the expansion of the universe to maintain a fix distance to the observer, the Hubble constant decreases with time; In the clumping model, this is equivalent to continually moving the emitter closer to the observer to compensate for the shrinkage of the measuring stick. The movement toward the observer causes blueshift and, consequentially, compensates the redshift by the contraction of the measuring stick. In the expanding universe model, scientists have to explain why some heavenly objects far away seem to fly off faster than the speed of light; In the clumping model, they don't and no elaborate explanations are necessary.

Astro-physicists have invested considerable resources and reputation in the expanding universe model, too much to change. But, time does wonder and a future Einstein may turn things upside down. Until then, do see this article as off-the-beaten-track but not off-course. It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. You are free to distribute, remix, tweak and build upon this work as long as credit is given to CreationWord.com.

I am not a career astrophysicist. This and other articles on the universe stem from my attempts to reach the Creator via examining the creation. I hope you find something useful as you read them judiciously. Thanks. D. N. Pham.